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Fall 2005
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Spring 2006

Schiefelbein, Stacey 99084969

October 2005

Summary

R.L. Gregory

From The Intellegent Eye

The way we behave is thought to be due to sensory information gathered from our surroundings, but that is not one-hundred percent accurate. Our senses can only tell us so much. For example we as humans do not identify objects strictly by using our six senses and what we see what is believed. Also, this question is posed: can something exists if that something cannot be sensed? A theological point of view would be that yes that something can exist because God is sensing everything all the time.

There is something to know beyond sensation. The images we see through our eyes are optical. Optical images are patterns of light. That is not important until you take the sense of sight and compare it to the other four senses. You can not feel, taste, hear, or touch images, which makes them biologically trivial. Taste and touch give us immediate survival information which help define the object before we figure out what the object is. That concept is primitive pre-perceptual to physical conditions not objects.

Which came first, the eye or the brain? What is the purpose of either without the other? An eye cannot visualize without a brain. What is the brain going to develop on without visual information? Evolution believes that the creature lived in the water used its primary nervous system to evolve into eyes. The touch and light sensitive skin of the creature was thought to evolve eyes from the moving in and out of shadows. The patterns from light to dart became warning signs which is thought to be how the development of optical systems occurred. Concentrated areas of light sensitive cells centralized in an area and due to light exposure created eye sockets. The lenses of our yes are thought to have started out as a thin protective layer to prevent things entering the creature from the water and began to thicken over time due to light intensity.

The sense touch can be distinguished by either contact with the skin or by a single finger feeling the surface of the object. In order to sense something in the future we use our eyes. The intelligence of the brain comes from the intelligence of the eye that has to recognize and locate objects in space. A huge problem we as humans experience is how do we understand an object more than we sense? How do we think outside the box? We must use perception to think outside the sensory box. Perception is figuring objects out without the use of sensory information. How can an object be distinguished from their surroundings? We perceive what the object maybe be by using lines and shapes we know from our elementary days.

Edgar Rubins name is associated with “figure ground reversal” because he made drawings of shapes and placing them with other lines and shapes all sharing common lines and borders. The purpose of this was to show that pictures are artificial inputs for the eye and that we can see patterns without accepting then as objects.

Gestalt psychologists in the research of perceptual organization noted that dots randomly placed on piece of patter arrange themselves in configurations due to our minds perceptive skills. An example would be three dots in a piece of paper form a triangle. A man known by the name of Wertheimer presented dot patterns to establish “principles of perceptual organization”. Some patterns were seen as groups of dots forming pairs that “ belong” to one another, or sloping lines that form “units” or rectangles which illustrate a “proximity”.

Could it be possible for principles organization to be inherited? Geslalt writers though it is possible. Modern views believe that through personal experiences of perceiving objects we grasp the principles of organization. Concluding we maybe all develop similar generalizations due to object experiences.

Helmholtz argued in order for perception to evolve, personal learning is important. Perception has no natural connection, but is more of repetition and pattern, like words to a sentence. Reported through neurological studies some visual detectors are built in the brain in structure. How do the retina ns brain then work together? Stimulus light sends signals that change cells signaling them to turn on or off or may do nothing. Receptors signal changes of illumination are responsible for movement in one direction and not in another. Movement is generally related to potential food or danger, which reacts to what we caall rotundity. The retina is like a computr that sends information to the brain. Erctain movements in one direction or another may or may not respond with patterns of the eye. Patterns are brought together in columns of ninety degree angels in three dimensional space like the brain itself. Perception is also built from shapes, movement and color. The patterns of perception is not simple. First one must use the perceptive process to figure out what kind of object it is which is fine for three dimensional objects, but when the object is two dimensional there are infinite possibilities.

Perception is impossible without the brain and retina working together in a team. You cannot have one without the other. Perception is developed through personal experiences and some traits that are inherited. The complete understanding of the perception process is not known yet, but research continues.

 

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Stacey Schiefelbein